Extractive Industry Standards
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
“is a global coalition of governments, companies and civil society working together to improve openness and accountable management of revenues from natural resources.”
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM)
The ICMM describes itself as being “founded in 2001 to improve sustainable development performance in mining and metals industry.” The council includes members such as Rio Tinto, AngloGold Ashanti, Anglo American, BHP Billiton and Chamber of Mines of Zambia, South Africa and Ghana.
Indigenous representatives have not been silent and have steadily demanded recognition of their rights domestically, regionally and internationally.
UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) is one of the international forums where indigenous leaders and activists raise their issues.
Minority and indigenous groups face many issues which include: killings, arrests and detention, enforced disappearances and displacements from their lands and territories.
Uganda is home to a number of minority and indigenous communities. There is the Benet of the east, the Batwa of South West and Karamojong of the north east. There are also the less prominent ones such as the Basongora and lk.
The Karamojong of Uganda is made up of ethnic groups such as the Pokot, Jie and Dodoth. There are also other communities which are identified under the Karamojong such as Tepeth, Ngipore, Ethur, and Nyakwe.
The main economic activity of the Karamojong is pastoralism. For many years they have practiced communal land tenure systems. They sometimes graze their livestock into Kenya where they get into contact with the Pokot and Turkana communities. They also venture into South Sudan in search of green pasture and water.
According to a research paper by African Commission’s Working Group on Indigenous Populations, the Karamojong community of Uganda have access to cheap fire arms which they use in conducting armed cattle raids from the neighboring communities.
In 2001 and 2006, the Uganda government made efforts to forcibly disarm the karamojong community in order to ‘bring development’ to the area. It is estimated that 15,000 soldiers were engaged in this exercise.
The report further states that the Uganda Peoples Defence Force has been accused of human rights violations such as rape and murder during the forced disbarment exercises.
The area of Karamoja in Uganda is reported to have over 50 different minerals such as gold, copper, iron, gemstones and silver among others.
- Hinton, I. Kabongo, C. Kabiswa, J. Okedi & R. Mbabazi (2011) The Mining and Minerals Sector in Karamoja Region: Development opportunities and constraints, p. viii.