Forms of Decentralization
There are four main forms of decentralization in the world. Decentralization in Kenya takes the form of devolution which is regarded by some authors as the purest form of decentralization.
- Devolution: This involves transfer of authority and resources from the central government to the lower level units of government. Under devolution, the decentralized units enjoy more autonomy.
- De-concentration: This is the transfer of authority and responsibility from the central government to the agency’s field officers at various levels. For instance, transfer of authority from the Ministry of Health to field officers of the same Ministry located at various levels.
- Delegation: Responsibility and authority are transferred from central agencies to organizations not directly under the direction and control of those agencies. For instance, NGOs and local governments.
- 4) Privatization or contracting: This is a form of decentralization which is constantly being embraced in the public sector. Specific services are purchased from the private sector. Contracting has been praised for promoting public private partnerships.